January 9, 2020

QUESTION:        Why can’t someone come up with a straightforward definition of what it means for a physician’s compensation to vary with, or take into account, the volume or value of the physician’s referrals to a hospital?

ANSWER:          Good question.  CMS is trying, but the federal courts continue to make this analysis much more complicated than Congress intended when it adopted the Stark Law.

Some courts have mistakenly held that if a physician is employed by a hospital in a hospital-based service, and is paid on an RVU basis, then since the more professional services that the physician personally performs, the more referrals they will make to the hospital and as a result, the physician’s compensation varies or takes into account the physician’s referrals to the hospital.

This is incorrect and is part of the reason that the Third Circuit had to reissue its decision in U.S. ex rel. Bookwalter v. UPMC (discussed in this week’s HLE).

CMS has apparently heard these concerns.  On October 17, 2019, CMS published proposed Stark regulations that will provide clear, helpful guidance on this and many other aspects of the Stark Law if they are adopted in final form as proposed.

As CMS has repeatedly stated, the requirement that compensation not vary with or take into account the volume or value of physician referrals, which appears in a number of statutory or regulatory exceptions, should be uniformly interpreted wherever it appears.  Such uniform interpretation is essential.  However, as pointed out in the Preamble to the Proposed Regulation, some courts have interpreted the volume or value standard to consider the subjective intent of the parties, rather than applying an objective “bright line” test as Congress intended, making compliance with the statute much more difficult and uncertain than intended by the statute.

CMS wants to address this confusion by proposing a much clearer definition of the volume or value standard in the regulations.  CMS has stated that this vital term should be interpreted to mean that the volume or value standard will be violated only if the amount paid to the physician or the amount due from the physician (i.e., a rental payment) will increase or decrease in correlation to the referrals that the physician makes to the hospital.

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CMS then gave the following examples of the types of compensation arrangements that will violate the Stark Law.

To illustrate, assume a physician leases medical office space from a hospital.  Assume also that the rental charges are $5000 per month and the arrangement provides that the monthly rental charges will be reduced by $5 for each diagnostic test ordered by the physician and furnished in one of the hospital’s outpatient departments.  Under proposed § 411.354(d)(6)(i), the compensation (that is, the rental charges) would take into account the volume or value of the physician’s referrals to the hospital.  The mathematical formula that illustrates the rental charges paid by the physician to the hospital would be:  Compensation = $5000 – ($5 x the number of designated health services referrals).  The policy at § 411.354(d)(6)(ii)(A) with respect to when compensation from a physician (or immediate family member of the physician) to an entity takes into account other business generated would operate in the same manner.

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As another example, assume that a physician leases medical office space from a hospital and the rental charges are as follows:  $2000 per month if the physician is in the top 25 percent of admitting physicians at the hospital (measured by the gross charges per inpatient admission); $2500 per month if the physician  is in the second quartile of admitting physicians on the hospital’s medical staff (measured by the gross charges per inpatient admission); and $3500 per month if the physician is in the bottom half of admitting physicians at the hospital (measured by the gross charges per inpatient admission).  Under our proposed additional approach to the volume or value standard and other business generated standard, the compensation (that is, the rental charges) would be determined in a manner that takes into account the value of the physician’s referrals and other business generated for the hospital.

These proposed amendments to the Stark Volume or Value Standard, as well as the proposed definition of fair market value and commercial reasonableness (which recognized that it does not violate the law to lose money on a physician’s practice and that published salary surveys are to be used as benchmarks only), will make compliance with the Stark Law much more straightforward.  These proposed regulations also provided valuable guidance on value-based arrangements and recognize that the fair market value of the physician’s input and cooperation with a value-based enterprise is generally not reflected in the hourly payment rates for the services actually performed by the physician.

The comment period for these proposed regulations ended on December 31, 2019.  We have urged CMS to issue the proposed regulations in final form without delay so that providers and the federal courts can begin to take advantage of this guidance.

If you want to learn more about value-based compensation, these regulations or the proposed Safe Harbor regulations that were issued on the same day, join Dan and Henry in Chicago on April 23-25 for the Hospital Physician Contracts Clinic.

May 17, 2018

QUESTION:        We are analyzing the fair market value of what we pay our employed physicians.  How should we classify physicians who practice in more than one specialty?

ANSWER:            There is no definitive rule as to how a physician’s specialty should be classified for compensation or compensation analysis purposes.  For example, the MGMA Physician Compensation Survey directs survey respondents to list their specialty as the area where they spend 50% or more time.  Others may classify physicians into specific specialties based on their training or the specialty that the physicians hold themselves out in.

The Board certification of each physician is another criterion that can be used. In the end, specialty classification for compensation analysis purposes depends on the criteria used by those conducting the analysis.  The key is consistency.

As the Office of Inspector General stated in its Supplemental Compliance Guidance for Hospitals, that when analyzing physician compensation for compliance with the Stark law,

“hospitals should have appropriate processes for making and documenting reasonable, consistent, and objective determinations of fair market value.”
70 Fed. Reg. 4863 (Jan. 31, 2005). (Emphasis added.)