May 4, 2023

QUESTION:
We have recently had several applicants who are returning to practice after a significant gap in time.  What kind of policy or practices do you recommend for practitioners who are reentering practice after an extended time off?

OUR ANSWER FROM HORTYSPRINGER ATTORNEY IAN DONALDSON:
Practitioners may take an extended leave from practice for a variety of reasons, including family obligations, personal health, alternative careers, or retirement. Several resources for physicians returning to practice are available through the AMA and the Federation of State Medical Boards, among others.

From a Medical Staff perspective, one of the eligibility criteria we typically include in our Credentials Policy is that practitioners are not even eligible for privileges unless they can demonstrate clinical activity in their specialty in an acute care hospital setting in the past two years.  Any exception could be considered through the waiver process and might include conditions on their appointment to ensure a safe return to practice.

We have also worked with hospitals to develop a Practitioner Re-Entry Policy that gives the Medical Staff leaders the authority to develop a Re-Entry Plan for any such applicant.  Depending on the circumstances surrounding the practitioner’s absence, such a Re-Entry Plan could include, among other things, a competency evaluation, a refresher course, and/or retraining in order to ensure that the individual’s general and specialty skills are up to date.

The bottom line is that the Medical Staff must confirm the individual’s current clinical competence before putting its stamp of approval on them.

February 16, 2023

QUESTION:
Our bylaws say that new medical staff members are “provisional” for at least 12 months, sometimes for 24 months.  Is this the same thing as focused professional practice evaluation?

OUR ANSWER FROM HORTYSPRINGER ATTORNEY LEEANNE MITCHELL:
No – or at least it shouldn’t be!  Focused professional practice evaluation (“FPPE”) is the Joint Commission terminology for the period of focused review that is required for following the grant of any new clinical privileges as the way of confirming practitioner competence – this means a focused review of all privileges for new applicants and all new privileges for existing practitioners (i.e., increases in privileges).  FPPE can be accomplished in many different ways – chart review, proctoring/direct observation, external reviews, even discussions with others who are involved in the care of the individual’s patients.  The Joint Commission does not mandate the duration of FPPE for any practitioner and, in fact, have specifically noted in the past that using a traditional 12-month provisional period as the time frame for performing FPPE could be overly burdensome for practitioners who had high volumes.

To that end, there is no requirement that hospitals and medical staffs maintain a provisional appointment status, though we do still see many hospitals that continue to utilize that status, generally as a way to assess the “citizenship” aspects of medical staff appointment – like behavior, attendance at and participation in medical staff affairs, completion of medical records, fulfillment of call obligations, etc.  In addition, at the same time, but generally for a much shorter duration, all new members are subjected to FPPE, the requirements of which depend on the practitioner’s specialty and clinical privileges.  The key is to understand that if a medical staff is going to maintain a provisional status or process, it should be addressed separately from the FPPE to confirm competence process.

January 5, 2023

QUESTION:
There is a lot of confusion amongst members of our Medical Staff about the relationship between Medical Staff appointment and clinical privileges.  For example, it is common to hear individuals refer to “Active Staff Privileges.” How can we help educate our Medical Staff on the difference between Medical Staff appointment and clinical privileges?

OUR ANSWER FROM HORTYSPRINGER ATTORNEY IAN DONALDSON:
Many people confuse or intertwine these two concepts, even though they are separate and distinct.  As such, it is important that your bylaws recognize appointment and clinical privileges as distinct concepts.

Appointment relates to an individual’s membership on the Medical Staff (i.e., that they are recognized as being “on the team”).  With this membership comes certain rights and responsibilities, like voting, serving on committees, etc.

Clinical privileges relate solely to the patient care services an individual has been authorized to provide at the hospital.  They do not relate to an individual’s involvement in Medical Staff affairs and, in turn, are not tied to the individual’s staff category.  In fact, an individual may be a member of the Medical Staff but have no privileges (e.g., “Community Staff”) or could have clinical privileges but no membership on the Medical Staff (e.g., telemedicine providers).

Ensuring your Medical Staff Bylaws documents make this distinction will hopefully help to educate your Medical Staff on this issue.

December 1, 2022

QUESTION:
A member of our Medical Staff recently disclosed to the Chief of Staff that they have a prescription to use medical marijuana. How should we handle this?

OUR ANSWER FROM HORTYSPRINGER ATTORNEY HALA MOUZAFFAR:
Rest assured, you are not the only ones that have faced this situation! As the number of states that legalize both medical and recreational marijuana continues to grow, questions related to marijuana use are becoming increasingly common. In general, there are three main things to know before tackling a situation like this:

  1. Marijuana is still illegal at the federal level. Because of that, users of medical marijuana are not entitled to federal protections like those offered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Instead, all protections and prohibitions are regulated by states, state actors (i.e., a state Board of Medicine), and other committees commissioned by the state.
  1. Every state is handling medical marijuana use and the workplace a little differently. Some states have provided additional protections by doing things like prohibiting discrimination against users of medical marijuana or mandating that employers provide reasonable accommodations for such users. Other states have taken the stance that practitioners should refrain from using medical marijuana, and some states have not addressed the issue at all.
  1. No state requires employers to permit the use of medical marijuana during work or on work property.

With the above in mind, we recommend that hospitals treat this situation like any other where they receive notice that a practitioner may be experiencing a health problem.  The matter should be reviewed under the Practitioner Health Policy or other applicable policy to determine if the underlying cause for the use of medical marijuana affects the practitioner’s ability to safely treat patients. Also, check with counsel to see how your state is addressing this issue.

October 13, 2022

QUESTION:
As part of our peer review process, we want to develop a plan requiring a physician to obtain 15 hours of CME (to improve performance in a couple of identified areas).  Our peer review committee has always forwarded these types of recommendations to the MEC and Board for approval prior to implementing them.  I recently heard that this is no longer recommended.  Can you explain why?  Did something change about MEC and Board oversight of Medical Staff activities?

OUR ANSWER FROM HORTYSPRINGER ATTORNEY RACHEL REMALEY:
Medical Staffs have come a long way in the past 20 years.  As the roles and responsibilities of Medical Staff leaders have multiplied, many Medical Staffs have decided to dedicate the MEC to matters of oversight and strategy, while delegating the detailed, day-to-day work of the Medical Staff to other committees.  This is how the Credentials Committee first came into fashion.  More recently, the Leadership Council and Multispecialty Peer Review Committee have begun to assume greater roles within the Medical Staff.  This means not limiting the work of the committee to conducting clinical case reviews and reporting those results to the MEC.  Most modern peer review committees are responsible for so much more.

For example, multispecialty peer review committees are commonly responsible for all of the following:

  • Taking full responsibility for implementing the Medical Staff peer review policy
  • Recommending revisions to the peer review policy and process
  • Reviewing and approving the OPPE and FPPE indicators recommended by the departments for each specialty
  • Keeping track of system issues that are identified through the peer review process, to ensure that they are addressed and do not fall through the cracks
  • Reviewing cases referred to the committee for peer review (which includes developing performance improvement plans for practitioners, where appropriate)

Any peer review committee that is performing all of the above functions must be engaged, educated, and savvy about peer review (so it’s important to make good choices about committee composition and to provide periodic training).  So, it only makes sense a hospital and medical staff would honor the commitment of the committee’s members by letting go of micromanagement and embracing a pure oversight role.

Oversight does not mean abdication of all responsibility.  But oversight does not require detailed information.  All the MEC and governing board need is enough information to be sure that good policies are in place and that the responsible individuals are following them.  This means summary/aggregate data reports work well.  For example, it should suffice if reports to the MEC and Board list the total number of cases reviewed through the peer review process within a specified period of time, with that data then broken down by department or specialty, with information about how those cases were addressed – e.g., through a letter to the practitioner, a collegial intervention, a performance improvement plan, or otherwise).

Empowering the multispecialty peer review committee to implement the peer review process has other benefits, in addition to demonstrating honor and respect for the committee’s members.  For one, by giving primary authority over the peer review process to a non-disciplinary committee, the Medical Staff promotes a peer review process grounded in collegial, progressive steps – rather than a punitive, threatening process.

Further, if collegial steps are unsuccessful in managing a practitioner’s performance issues, the MEC and/or Board may eventually need to get involved.  By keeping those bodies out of the initial collegial efforts of the Medical Staff peer review process, the hospital and Medical Staff preserve the members as disinterested individuals, allowing the MEC and/or Board to review matters with a fresh set of eyes when a practitioner comes before them.  This promotes fairness in the process, since practitioners who are subject to review can rest assured that there will be multiple layers of review – before committees/bodies that are for the most part disinterested – before any “disciplinary” action were to be imposed.

To conclude – we absolutely do recommend that hospitals and Medical Staffs empower their peer review committees to implement CME requirements, as well as other performance improvement measures, without first having those measures taken to the MEC or Board for approval.  It’s efficient, it shows trust in those leaders doing the legwork on peer review, and it is an important part of a collegial, fair process.

October 6, 2022

QUESTION:
Getting attendance at our Medical Staff department and committee meetings has always been a challenge.  Being able to participate remotely has helped somewhat, but it has also opened a whole new set of problems (like members participating on a confidential committee discussion while they shop at Target!).  How can we balance the benefits of using Zoom and Teams with some of the inherent risks that come along with using those remote options?

OUR ANSWER FROM HORTYSPRINGER ATTORNEY IAN DONALDSON:
While we too have benefited from the ability to interact with Hospitals and Medical Staffs leaders via Zoom and Teams during the pandemic, maintaining confidentiality, privacy and security can be a problem during virtual meetings.  This is especially true if any sensitive information will be discussed or shared.

Like traditional, in-person meetings, it can be helpful for the chair to begin each meeting with a reminder of the importance of confidentiality when sensitive issues are being discussed.  It is also important to remind participants to only join in from a secure location and that they are required to maintain compliance with all applicable policies on confidentiality, data privacy, electronic communications, and security no matter where they call in from.  A “virtual meeting” policy can be a helpful way to spell out these guidelines.

Consider joining us for our November Grand Rounds “Running Effective Meetings in a Virtual World,” where Ian Donaldson and Nick Calabrese will discuss how to make your meetings more efficient, both in-person and remotely, and some of the challenges Medical Staff leaders face regarding confidentiality in a virtual space.

September 22, 2022

QUESTION:
A physician recently resigned employment with a group that’s affiliated with the hospital.  Is there anything we should consider with respect to the physician’s Medical Staff appointment and privileges?

OUR ANSWER FROM HORTYSPRINGER ATTORNEY PHIL ZARONE:
Yes, you’ll want to evaluate whether the physician is still eligible for continued appointment and privileges under the Medical Staff Credentials Policy (or Bylaws).

Malpractice insurance is often provided through employers, so physicians who resign their employment often lose their malpractice coverage.  Most Medical Staff Credentials Policies state that such insurance is a threshold eligibility criterion for appointment and privileges and that physicians will “automatically relinquish” their privileges if they lose their insurance.  (If your Credentials Policy doesn’t say this, it should!)  So, one step is to determine if the physician has acquired new malpractice insurance.

Similarly, Credentials Policies often require physicians to have acceptable coverage arrangements to be eligible for appointment and privileges.  Resignation from a group may mean that those coverage arrangements are no longer in place, so the existence of appropriate coverage should be confirmed with the physician.

Finally, all the other eligibility criteria in the Credentials Policy should be reviewed to determine if the physician’s resignation from employment will cause the physician to be ineligible.  For example, some Credentials Policies require the physician to maintain an office within the hospital’s service area as a condition of being granted appointment and privileges.

On the employment side, a physician’s employment contract may contain an “incident and coterminous” provision saying that the physician’s privileges will automatically be resigned upon termination of the contract.  Similarly, the contract may include a restrictive covenant prohibiting the physician from practicing in a defined geographic area for a certain amount of time after the contract ends.  However, the employer (not the Medical Staff) is responsible for enforcing such contractual provisions.

September 8, 2022

QUESTION:
Can the medical staff of a critical access hospital be part of a unified medical staff within a multi-hospital system?

OUR ANSWER FROM HORTYSPRINGER ATTORNEY DAN MULHOLLAND:
As of the date of this e-mail (September 8, 2022), the answer is no, but a change could be in the works soon.  In 2014, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) revised the Medicare Conditions of Participation to allow a “unified and integrated” medical staff in hospitals that are part of a health system.  Previously, CMS had required that each hospital have its own separate medical staff.  In the past, even if medical staffs in a system had overlapping membership, CMS required that the medical staffs be “separate.”  However, the CMS Interpretive Guidelines provide as follows:

[A] hospital system that includes certain types of hospitals, i.e., Hospitals-within-Hospitals or Hospital Satellites, that are being paid under a Medicare payment system other than the Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS) might jeopardize the Medicare payment status of those excluded hospitals if it owns both the tenant and host hospitals and uses a unified medical staff for both.  (Emphasis added.)

42 CFR §482.22(b)(4).  This effectively prevented CAHs from being part of a unified medical staff within a system.  CMS reiterated this rule in 2017 when it approved an application from The Joint Commission to have deemed status for surveys of CAHs. 82 Fed. Reg. 49,817, 49,818 (Oct. 27, 2017).

However, on July 6, 2022, CMS proposed that this prohibition be lifted and that medical staffs of CAHs be permitted to be part of a unified medical staff within a multi-hospital system subject to essentially the same rules (e.g., opt-in and opt-out rights, consideration of local circumstances, etc.) that apply to unified medical staffs within PPS hospitals. 87 Fed. Reg. 40350, 40376.  Comments closed on August 29, 2022, so the proposal may be final at any time now.  Stay tuned for further developments in the Health Law Express.

September 1, 2022

QUESTION:
We have new Medical Staff leaders taking office the first of the year and would like to get them trained up when they start. Do you have any virtual options available?

OUR ANSWER FROM HORTYSPRINGER ATTORNEY IAN DONALDSON:
Do we ever!!! Several partners here at HSM have been working on a new virtual Medical Staff Leader Orientation & Toolkit program that will be available on January 26, 2023. This six-hour course will cover leadership, credentialing, and peer review topics, providing your new leaders with the tools they will need to get off on the right foot!

You can obtain more information and register for this program here.

August 25, 2022

QUESTION:
I just got back from what was probably the worst-run medical staff committee meeting ever. The problem is that I’m the chair and was running the meeting!  I thought it would be easy, but it was a lot harder than it looked. Any pointers?

OUR ANSWER FROM HORTYSPRINGER ATTORNEY NICHOLAS CALABRESE:
Running a meeting is hard work – here are some tips that may help:

Tip #1.  Start on time.  This is one of the most important tips.  If a meeting isn’t started on time, chances are it won’t end on time, and that has consequences which we’ll discuss below.  If a meeting always starts on time, the attendees will more than likely be there on time, since no one likes to walk into a meeting late, and being late disrupts the meeting.

Tip #2.  Limit the conversation.  What “limit the conversation” means is that if a couple of attendees in the room are making the same point, over and over again, that’s unproductive, so the chair should step in and say “Ok, any other points of view that we haven’t discussed yet?”  Also, if a discussion “drifts,” the chair should step in and restate the purpose of the discussion.  This can be hard to do, but it is a skill that needs to be developed.  Otherwise, the participants start thinking the meeting is a waste of time, and the downward spiral begins.

Tip #3.  Take an issue off-line.  There are times when a meeting is getting bogged down because no one has the information needed to make a decision.  For example, is the bylaws revision being discussed a Joint Commission Standard?  A best practice?  If no one knows for sure, further discussion will not help the committee make a decision, so that issue should be taken off the agenda until the next meeting, to research the issue.

Another reason to take an issue off the agenda is when there are so many conflicting points of view that the issue won’t be able to be resolved at the meeting.  The chair knows that no matter how much more discussion there is, the issue won’t be resolved.  So, the chair should stop the discussion, and maybe appoint a small group to investigate or research the issue, then bring the results back to the committee.

Tip #4.  End on time.  This is the most important tip.  If a meeting is to end at 8:30 a.m., end the meeting.  Although some attendees don’t mind going over, others will start thinking about work that needs to be done, or another meeting to go to, or an appointment to make – focus is lost.  A meeting that runs on and on and on isn’t efficient and becomes much less effective as time goes on.  Also, not ending on time affects meeting attendance.  If an attendee knows that the meeting always goes over, he or she is less likely to attend the meeting.

Sometimes agendas are just too full, or there may have been too much discussion on one issue, etc. – that happens.  But, instead of plowing on through with more and more disinterested attendees as each minute ticks by, just end the meeting, and hold those agenda items over for the next meeting.  The exception is if the issue is of critical importance, but that will be few and far between.